Cancer Immunotherapy

Cancer Immunotherapy

Recent advances in treating cancer patients have resulted in the development of biological therapies that can prove to be a promising alternative to conventional cancer therapies. Immunotherapy harnesses the body’s immune system to identify and fight effectively against cancer cells [1]. Immunotherapy works by attacking the growth of cancer cells or stimulating the immune system to kill cancer cells. Contradictory to the standard cancer treatment regimes such as chemotherapy, radiation therapy, which act on both normal and cancerous cells, immunotherapeutic…

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PD-1/PD-L1 Pathway in Cancer

PD-1/PD-L1 Pathway in Cancer

Immune checkpoints refer to a plethora of inhibitory pathways hardwired into the immune system that are crucial for maintaining self-tolerance and limiting collateral tissue damage during anti-microbial immune responses. Checkpoint molecules include Cytotoxic T Lymphocyte Antigen-4 (CTLA-4), Programmed Death-1 (PD-1), Lymphocyte Activation Gene-3 (LAG-3), and T-cell immunoglobulin and Mucin protein-3 (TIM-3) as well as several others (Ref.1). PD-1, an immunoinhibitory receptor of the CD28 family, is a type 1 trans-membrane protein that encoded by the PDCD1 gene. The structure of…

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