Nuclear Factor-KappaB (NF-KappaB) is a heterodimeric protein made up of various combinations of Rel family transcription factor members. NF-KappaB is activated via the conventional and noncanonical (or alternative) signaling pathways, which, although having different signaling mechanisms, are both crucial for controlling immunological and inflammatory responses. NF-KappaB plays a crucial role in carcinogenesis and is a key regulator of cell fate choices, including the regulation of proliferation and programmed cell death. Toll-like receptors on innate immune system cells that recognize bacterial and viral products also induce NF-KappaB, which triggers the generation of proinflammatory cytokines and the activation of antigen-presenting cells for T-cell costimulation in the adaptive immunological response. Recent research has emphasized the significance of the link between NF-KappaB, inflammation, and cancer as well as the importance of treatments that control NF-KappaB activity.
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