Coronavirus|COVID-19| nCOV | SARS-COV-2

Coronavirus|COVID-19| nCOV | SARS-COV-2

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The epidemic severe respiratory disease “COVID- 19” which is an acronym for “Corona virus Disease 2019” caused by a new Corona virus (nCoV), scientifically now known as SARS-CoV-2, is an enveloped virus which has positive ssRNA genome and appears as crown under electron microscope.  SARS-CoV-2 belongs to the family of beta-Corona virus that also include other life threatening viruses like SARS and MERS. This large family of potential viruses has become the major pathogens for emerging respiratory disease outbreaks and can be isolated from different animal species. COVID-19(Corona Virus Disease) is an infectious disease caused by the most recently discovered Corona virus. This highly contagious new virus and disease were unknown before the outbreak began in Wuhan, China which spread all over the world very quickly. COVID-19 IgG/IgM Rapid Test (Whole Blood/ Serum/Plasma) is a rapid Chromatographic Immunoassay for the qualitative of IgG and IgM antibodies to COVID-19 in human whole blood, serum or plasma as an aid in the diagnosis of primary and secondary COVID-19 infections. These viruses can cross species barrier and cause illness in human like common cold to more serious respiratory complications, which can become pandemic worldwide.

COVID-19 virus has two most important proteins named nucleocapsid and spike protein.

COVID-19 -Nucleocapsid Protein:

The structural nucleocapsid (N) protein of nCoV/SARS-CoV-2/COVID-19 is a predicted 46 kDa phosphoprotein having 423 amino acid residues. A short Serine rich stretch and a recognized nuclear localization signal are the unique features of the nucleocapsid protein of nCoV/SARS-CoV-2/COVID-19, so that it has a little homology with the proteins of other members of this large corona virus family. These features also suggest the involvement of nucleocapsid protein of nCoV/SARS-CoV-2/COVID-19 in different stages of viral lifecycle. The protein has multifaceted activities like it packs the nCoV/SARS-CoV-2/COVID-19 viral genome into a helical ribonucleocapsid (RNP) and plays an important role in viral self-assembly causing nCoV/SARS-CoV-2/COVID-19. This nucleocapsid protein of nCoV/SARS-CoV-2/COVID-19 also forms dimer in the cell after infection by self-association with the help of interactive C terminal domain.

COVID-19 -Spike Protein:

The spike (S) protein of nCoV/SARS-CoV-2/COVID-19 is one of the structural glycoproteins that remains embedded in viral envelope and acts as the fundamental component of early viral infection of nCoV/SARS-CoV-2/COVID-19 is upon binding the host receptor. The nCoV/SARS-CoV-2/COVID-19 is trimeric spike protein has two main domains such as S1 domain for receptor binding and S2 domain for membrane fusion and several specific cleavage sites in S1- S2 boundary junction and needs a novel, endocytic protease- primed cleavage to get activated during infection. Thus it mainly binds to the furin protein on the cell membrane which performs trypsin like proteolytic cleavage and then the protein gets activated facilitating its entry into the host. This transmembrane spike protein of nCoV/SARS-CoV-2/COVID-19 shares binding property to the Angiotensin Converting Enzyme 2 (ACE2) likely to that of SARS- CoV. The high affinity of nCoV/SARS-CoV-2/COVID-19 Spike protein for human ACE2 may contribute to the apparent ease with which nCoV/SARS-CoV-2/COVID-19 can spread from human-to-human and make nCoV/SARS-CoV-2/COVID-19 pandemic.

To facilitate research in COVOD-19 following reagents are available from Abeomics

1. Recombinant Proteins Viz. Nucleocapsid, Spike Protein and ACE2 protein

2. Antinbodies Viz. Monoclonal antibody against Spike protein, polyclonal antibody against nucleocapsid and spike proteins.

3. Inhibitors Viz. E64-d, Camostat (mesylate)

4. ELISA Kits- ACE2 ELISA Kit

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